Posted by Jay Roberts at 07:16 PM | Permalink
Magnetic bracelets, copper bracelets & magnetic jewelry are great gifts.
AceMagnetics.com has become the premier magnetic bracelet, copper bracelet and magnetic jewelry online catalog as a result of our commitment to one simple tenet - customer service.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 07:16 PM | Permalink
The Earth is surrounded by a magnetosphere, to the action of which, all the living things on Earth adapted.
Earth’s magnetism is very weak, between 0.3 gauss at the Equator to 0.7 gauss at the Poles.
Researchers discovered magnetic bacteria living in the ponds and lakes, presenting inside their cells a chain of magnetic crystals, and those located in the Northern Hemisphere swim in the direction of the magnetic north, while those from the Southern Hemisphere swim in the direction of the magnetic south.(These bacteria live in environments with poor oxygen supply)......Read ON...http://news.softpedia.com/news/Earth-039-s-Magnetism-and-Life-49050.shtml
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:04 AM | Permalink
2. Now replace the single light bulb by two in parallel as shown.
3. Remove one bulb from its socket. What happens? Why?
4. How does the operation of this parallel circuit compare to the series circuit you worked with earlier?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:31 AM | Permalink
2. Try to pick up the paper clips by touching them with the nail. What happens?
3. Hook up the batteries so that electricity is running through the wire.
4. Try again to pick up the paper clips. What happens? Why?
5. Now disconnect the battery and try the paper clips again. Does the same thing happen as in step 2? What has happened to the nail?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:30 AM | Permalink
|1 battery in holder |
1 light bulb
2 three foot wires
|1 toothpick |
1 rubber band
2 1-foot wires with washer at one end
1. Take a wire that has no washer on one end and tightly wrap the bare wire around the end of one craft stick. The wires should be touching each other. Use the other wire for the other craft stick.
2. Put the 2 sticks on top of each other with the wires touching. Wrap a rubber band tightly around the other end.
3. Put the toothpick between the craft sticks near the rubber band. The wires should now touch when you push down on the switch and open up when you stop pushing.
4. Now that you have your switch, go on to the next page to finish this experiment. You will need to work with another team.
2. Put a book upright between the two breadboards so that you cannot see the light and switch the other team.
3. Write a one word question and translate it into Morse Code.
4. Use Morse Code to ask the other team your question. Turn your light on for a "long" time for a dash and a "short" time for a dot. Use an extra-long flash of light to indicate that you are done.
5. Now decode their answer. Write down the dots and dashes. Then translate them into letters
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:29 AM | Permalink
2. Put the compass near one end of the magnet. Let the needle stop moving. Note the direction of the needle. Lift the compass and draw an arrow where the compass was. The arrow should point in the same direction as the painted end of the compass needle.
3. Move the compass toward the middle of the magnet. When the needle settles, note its direction and draw an arrow as before.
4. Repeat this as you move the compass to the other end of the magnet.
5. Now start again from a different place near the end of the magnet. Go from end to end at least 3 times. Explore both above and below the magnet.
6. When you're done, your arrows show you where the magnetic field is.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:26 AM | Permalink
2. Now wire in the paper clip as a switch as shown and use it to turn the light on and off.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:24 AM | Permalink
2. Based on your first exploration of magnets, what are two ways we can determine if a magnetic force is present?
3. Which of these methods do you think will be more likely to detect a weak magnetic force and why?
4. For each of the materials, put one layer of the material between the magnet and the detector. Test tor the presence of a magnetic force in two ways. Record your observations in the following chart.
5. Repeat step 4 but put 4 layers of each material between the magnet and detector. Record your observations in the chart.
6. Repeat step 4 but put 16 layers of each material between the magnet and detector. Record your observations in the chart.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:23 AM | Permalink
2. Now replace the single light bulb by three in a row. Another way to say this is that the 3 lights are in series. What happens? Why?
3. Remove one bulb from its socket. What happens? Why?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:23 AM | Permalink
2. Move all of the magnets away from one bar magnet. Put the compass at the end of the magnet marked "N". Draw an arrow on the diagram below showing what direction the painted end of the compass needle points. Then repeat for the end marked "S".
3. Use the compass in the same way to determine the location of the North and South poles for each of the other magnets. Draw a sketch of each one and show the poles.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:22 AM | Permalink
2. Now replace the single battery by 2 batteries with both + signs in the same direction. What happens?
3. Now reverse one of the batteries so that the two + signs are together. What happens? Why?
4. What do you think would happen if you used 4 batteries to light one lamp?
Try it with your neighbor.
What voltage is used in your house and school? _______
THE VOLTAGE IN YOUR HOUSE AND SCHOOL IS A LOT HIGHER THAN WE USE IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. NEVER TRY THESE THINGS USING ELECTRICITY FROM A WALL OUTLET!!
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:20 AM | Permalink
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:19 AM | Permalink
|1 battery in holder |
1 light bulb
2 wires with washers
wires with clips
2. Replace one of the wires with the 2 wires with clips as shown below.
3. Complete the circuit by clipping each of the materials in the bag-o-stuff between the clips.
4. Figure out which materials are conductors and which are insulators. List the materials in the following chart and check the appropriate column. How will you be able to tell which are conductors and which are insulators?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:18 AM | Permalink
|2 batteries in holders |
2 light bulbs
|2 paper clips |
6 wires with washers
|push pins |
2. Build the switched, parallel circuit shown in the diagram. Label the switches as shown.
3. Use your circuit to complete the following table:
|Number Of Bulbs Lit|
|First Switch||Second Switch||Predicted||Observed|
4. What type of calculation is your circuit performing?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:16 AM | Permalink
2. Once you figure it out, draw a "schematic" of your circuit on the next page. This sort of picture is used to describe how to build a particular circuit. It uses symbols to represent things like the battery and light bulb. It shows what each wire connects together. Here are some of the symbols you can use for your schematic:
3. Once you have drawn your schematic, see how many different ways you can get the bulb to light. Draw a schematic for each one. What things are necessary in your circuit for the bulb to light?
4. Build the circuit shown here and make sure the bulb lights. Take out one of the wires. What happens? Why?
5. Build the circuit shown here and make sure the bulb lights. Replace the wire by the string. What happens?
An insulator is
A conductor is
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:15 AM | Permalink
|2 batteries in holders |
2 light bulbs
|3 wires with washers |
1 paper clip
2. Build the simple circuit with 2 light bulbs in series. Tape one bulb on the paper lightning bolt. When this light is lit it will indicate that lightning is striking.
3. Make a house out of paper. Houses tend to be made of wood, bricks, etc. Are these things good conductors?
4. Put the other light bulb on the house. When this light is lit it will indicate that the house has been damaged by lightning.
5. Simulate lightning striking the house by briefly closing the switch.
6. Now protect the house by building a circuit parallel to the light. This circuit must have resistance that is lower than the house so use just a plain wire.
7. Make lightning strike again by closing the switch. What happens? Why?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:14 AM | Permalink
|1 D Cell battery |
1 Toilet paper tube
|2 Thick rubber bands |
2 Pieces of foil
2 1-foot long wires with washers
Long strips of newspaper
2. Put the wrapped battery into the center of the tube.
3. Mark the tube clearly with + and -signs to match those on the battery.
4. Gently crumple a piece of foil and put it in the tube on top of the battery.
5. CAREFULLY push a nail through the tube as close as possible to the foil. Use a pencil point if necessary to make holes.
6. Turn the tube upside down and repeat steps 4 and 5. Both nails should stick out of the sides of the tube in the same direction.
7. Put a rubber band over the 2 nails on each side. These rubber bands should be tight enough to pull the nails toward each other.
8. Attach one wire to each nail by wrapping the bare wire end tightly around the nail.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:13 AM | Permalink
|2 batteries in holders |
4 wires with washers
|2 light bulbs |
|2 10-Ohm resistors |
1 100-Ohm resistor
2. Break the circuit to one of the lights and reconnect it with a resistor in the path. The resistance of an object is measured in Ohms. The higher the resistance, the more Ohms the object has. Resistors typically have the number ot Ohms marked on them. Start by using the 10 Ohm resistor.
3. With the resistor in the circuit, observe and record what changes have occurred in the two lights.
4. Replace the resistor by the 100 Ohm resistbr. What happens?
5. What do you think would happen if you put a 10 Ohm resistor in BOTH paths?
Try it. What happens?
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:12 AM | Permalink
2. For the rest of this experiment if you are asked to charge a pen, hold it by its cap and rub it briskly 50 times with the piece of wool. If you are asked to discharge a pen, roll it gently between your hands a few times.
3. Discharge both pens. Hold the loose pen by the cap and slowly bring it near the other pen. Observe what happens and record this in the chart on the next page.
4. Now charge the loose pen. Hold it by the cap and slowly bring it near the other pen. Observe what happens and record this in the chart below.
5. Discharge the loose pen. Now record what happens when you bring it near the other pen?
6. Charge both pens. Record what happens when you bring them near each other.
7. Discharge the loose pen but leave the hanging pen charged. Record what happens when you bring them near each other.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:11 AM | Permalink
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:10 PM | Permalink
James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that the light is made of electric and magnetic fields that change very rapidly. When you walk across a rug in the winter (and there isn't very much water in the air), you can collect electric charges that make your hair stand on end. You can sometimes give other people shocks by moving these electric charges from you to them (and they can shock you by doing the same).
Your hair stands on end because the electric charges create a "force field" that pushes on other charges. We call that force field an electric field because electrical charges make it.
You are probably also familiar with magnets. If you look closely at a magnet, you will find that it always has two "poles" (refrigerator magnets are flat - with one pole on one side of the magnet and the other pole on the other side - so finding the magnet's poles can be confusing). The Earth is also a magnet - with a North Pole and a South Pole. If we suspend a small magnet so that it is free to turn, one of the magnet's poles will turn until it points north. The magnet turns because the Earth's magnetic field creates a force that pushes the magnet to point north and south.
Maxwell's work showed that electricity and magnetism were connected. His equations showed that if electric charges are pushed or pulled, the changes in the speed of the charge create magnetic fields. In the same way, if magnetic fields change, they can create electric fields. This understanding allowed engineers to create electric generators that have big magnets. The generators create flowing electricity by pushing electric charges in wires with magnetic fields created by the magnets....READ ON...http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/electric.html
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:13 AM | Permalink
This graphic depiction shows a gas cloud of lithium-6 atoms after it was cooled and subjected to a magnetic field. The 'before' view shows that the cloud resembled a cigar shape just after it was released from the laser trap. Later on, the cloud has expanded dramatically in the perpendicular direction and assumed an elliptical shape.
+ Larger image
Research that makes ultra-cold atoms extremely attractive to one another may help test current theories of how all matter behaves - a breakthrough that might lead to advanced transportation systems, more efficient energy sources and new tests of astrophysical theories.
The experiment was conducted by a team led by Dr. John Thomas, a physics professor at Duke University, Durham, N.C., under a grant from NASA's Biological and Physical Research Program through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
The team manipulated a type of interacting atoms that behaved like fermions -- sub-atomic particles that are the building blocks of all matter, but are difficult to study directly. Normally, these atoms, called fermionic atoms, avoid each other at all costs. In this case, the researchers confined and cooled a lithium-6 gas cloud of atoms, and then introduced a magnetic field that acted as a matchmaker, inducing the atoms to attract one another strongly. READ ON
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:10 AM | Permalink
Scientists hope that an unusual experiment slated for launch on the space shuttle this summer will reveal how plants know up from down.
When gardeners poke a seed into the ground, they never worry in which direction it lays. Give it enough water and food and care, and sure enough, its root will grow downward and its stem will sprout upward -- every time! Lay the seed upside-down, and the root and stem would still find their proper positions.
How do plants do it? We humans know up from down (even with our eyes closed) because we have a complex organ in our inner ear that senses gravity's pull and signals the brain. But plants have no such organ. It's a puzzle............READ ON....http://weboflife.ksc.nasa.gov/currentResearch/currentResearchFlight/sowingSeeds.htm
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:05 AM | Permalink
April 4, 2006: Thirty-plus years ago on the moon, Apollo astronauts made an important discovery: Moondust can be a major nuisance. The fine powdery grit was everywhere and had a curious way of getting into things. Moondust plugged bolt holes, fouled tools, coated astronauts' visors and abraded their gloves. Very often while working on the surface, they had to stop what they were doing to clean their cameras and equipment using large--and mostly ineffective--brushes.
Dealing with "the dust problem" is going to be a priority for the next generation of NASA explorers. But how? Professor Larry Taylor, director of the Planetary Geosciences Institute at the University of Tennessee, believes he has an answer: "Magnets."
Above: In Taylor's lab, moondust scattered onto a wire mesh lines up with a magnet inserted below......READ ON....http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/04apr_magneticmoondust.htm
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:56 AM | Permalink
Montreal -- Scientists have found that a rare and enigmatic class of neutron stars, of which only five are known, are actually magnetars -- exotic stars with magnetic fields trillions of times stronger than the Sun's or Earth's, so powerful that they could strip a credit card clean 100,000 miles (about 160,000 kilometers) away.
These neutron stars, called Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXP), had defied physical explanation since the first such object was discovered in 1982. The newly exposed AXP-magnetar relationship is featured in the September 12 issue of Nature, based on data obtained with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft.
The finding, by a team led by Prof. Victoria Kaspi of the McGill University Department of Physics in Montreal, Canada, essentially doubles the number of known magnetars.....................RAED ON.....http://universe.nasa.gov/press/2002/020911a.html
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:51 AM | Permalink
The magnetosphere is that area of space, around the Earth, that is controlled by the Earth's magnetic field.
Did you know that the Earth's environment extends all the way from the sun to the Earth and beyond? It is not an empty wasteland of space. Instead, near-Earth space is full of streaming particles, electromagnetic radiation, and constantly changing electric and magnetic fields. All of these things make up our magnetosphere.
It is important to learn as much about this space around the Earth as we would about any other part of the Earth's environment. The magnetosphere helps to protect our Earth from the danger of the Sun's solar wind. Let's find out how ...
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:54 PM | Permalink
OK Enough is enough - Now you’re talking about magnets and Martians?? Well - yes we are..magnets here, magnets there (mars) magnets everywhere ......Be careful you might start believing this stuff about magnets if you read on......
December 20, 2000 -- The case for ancient life on Mars looks better than ever after scientists announced last week that they had discovered magnetic crystals inside a Martian meteorite -- crystals that, here on Earth, are produced only by microscopic life forms.
The magnetic compound, called magnetite or Fe3O4, is common enough on our planet. It is present, for example, in household video and audio tapes. But only certain types of terrestrial bacteria, which can assemble the crystals atom by atom, produce magnetite structures that are chemically pure and free from defects.
Scientists studying the Allan Hills meteorite, a 4-billion-year-old rock from Mars that landed in Antarctica about 13,000 years ago, found just such crystals deep inside the space rock................READ ON..............http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast20dec_1.htm
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:42 PM | Permalink
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:29 PM | Permalink
How many miles is it to the center of the Earth?
The Earth is not a perfect sphere, so the distance to the center of the Earth varies from 6378 km (3963 miles) at the equator to 6357 km (3950 miles) at the poles.
Dr. Eric Christian
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:27 PM | Permalink
Why does sunset look red?
The Sun is always a little redder because of the scattering, but at sunrise and sunset the light has to pass through more atmosphere and loses much more blue light, so appears much redder.
Dr. Eric Christian
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:25 PM | Permalink
Why is the sky blue?
The Sun gives off all colors of light, but blue light is bounced around the atmosphere a lot more than red light is (it's called scattering). The sky is blue because the the blue light bouncing around "lights up" other parts of the sky.
Dr. Eric Christian and Beth Jacob
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:25 PM | Permalink
You know those big stone structures out in Egypt? The ones which were supposedly built to house the remains of dead pharaohs??? The ones you thought were built by the Egyptians?Well, you are wrong!THEY WERE BUILT BY ALIENS!Let's take a look at some undeniable evidence........READ ON.......http://www.outerworlds.com/likeness/aliens/aliens.html
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:14 PM | Permalink
So - what if it is true that everything has a magnetic field and some have figured how to tap into it? This is not an anythings possible type situation - it is another clue to what is possible if you just let yourself be open to new/old things being possible
Leedskalnin took issue with modern science's understanding of nature. He flatly states that they are wrong. His concept of nature is simple. All matter consists of individual magnets and it is the movement of these magnets within materials and through space that produces measurable phenomena, i.e., magnetism and electricity...........We have posts to the coral castle and have read about it and the man with great interest.... READ ON........http://www.atlantisrising.com/issue12/ar12coralcastle.html
Posted by Jay Roberts at 09:55 PM | Permalink
The word "tides" is a generic term used to define the alternating rise and fall in sea level with respect to the land, produced by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun. To a much smaller extent, tides also occur in large lakes, the atmosphere, and within the solid crust of the earth, acted upon by these same gravitational forces of the moon and sun....Read ON...http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:30 PM | Permalink
Tides are the rising and falling of the sea. During high tide, the water is deeper and comes further onto the beach. Another name for high tide is flood tide. During low tide, the water is more shallow and does not come as far onto the beach. Another name for low tide is ebb tide....Read ON ...http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/webunits/cycles/tides.html
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:26 PM | Permalink
Could It be the earth and the moon are both very large magnets and when the two get closer their magnetic fields react to each other? I know the earth is a magnet, what about the moon? Also, I live in missouri where there is no ocean, how can I predict when the moon is cloest to me as in a high tide without using a computer to do the work for me?......................READ ON..............................http://van.physics.uiuc.edu/qa/listing.php?id=4211
Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:21 PM | Permalink
It is becoming more and more interesting the more we read about magnetic highways and pathways our forbearers travel (that is if you believe in evolution), So much knowledge and so little time to learn and live a life, make a living etc etc. We just learned strep bacteria lived on the moon for 2 1/2 years after being left there by an astronaut - so much knowledge, so little time to learn... So much in front of us we don’t understand or even see so much of the time – I mean – who knew birds and fish might follow magnetic pathways??? This next article is interesting - ENJOY!!
Inspired by recent posts on this list about strandings of white and whale sharks, I have been pondering the matter of shark strandings in general. Following is a synopsis of my thoughts on this topic, which I hope will be of interest to users of this list and will spark an exchange of ideas about this most intriguing topic:
Shark strandings or beaching events are something of a mystery. For fishes that are generally regarded as being negatively buoyant in seawater, these events occur with surprising frequency yet with little or no apparent regularity.
Classic studies by Bone & Roberts (1969) and Baldridge (1970, 1972) on tissue densities and buoyancy in sharks revealed that due largely to the accumulation of low-density oils in the large liver, sharks are only slightly heavier than the medium through which they swim. Baldridge (1974) noted that a 1 015-pound tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) tested at the Mote Marine Laboratory had, when immersed in sea water, an apparent weight of only 7.3 pounds (that works out to about 0.72% of its weight in air). Thus, sharks must invest very little energy in order to prevent sinking.
In cool temperate zones of both Hemispheres, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) wash ashore with surprising frequency, and - in various stages of decay - have frequently been misinterpreted as 'sea monsters' (see Heuvelmans 1965 for a discussion of this matter). Although phylogenetically allied with the lamnids (the family which includes the white, makos, porbeagle and salmon sharks) the basking shark shares many hydrostatic features with deep-sea squaloids and hexanchoids (the orders which embrace the dogfishes and the cow sharks, respectively), including an exceptionally long body cavity filled with an enormous liver (up to 25% of the total body weight in C. maximus; up to 35% in certain deep-sea squaloids) which is low in vitamin content but rich in low-density oils (870-880 kg/m3 compared with about 1028kg/m3 for seawater), including a high percentage (70-98%) of squalene. Since the gastrointestinal tract (rich in autochthonous bacteria and other microbes) is typically one of the first organ systems to break down upon death of a host animal, it is tempting to speculate that the gases liberated through the processes of decomposition may be sufficient to tip the hydrostatic balance, rendering the carcass as a whole positively buoyant. Time and tide may eventually carry the carcass to shore, where it may be reported by a terrestrial primate with limited swimming capability but boundless curiosity.
Compared with their elephantine cousin, the basking shark, lamnids have a relatively short body cavity and smaller liver (about 15% of the total body weight). Yet these sharks, too, occasionally wash ashore - sometimes in moribund or freshly expired yet apparently uninjured condition. Users of this list will no doubt recall recent reports from South Africa of large white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) washed ashore - in one disgusting case, to be beaten and fairly torn asunder by irrational and unsympathetic 'beach apes'. From near my own base of operations, in British Columbia, Canada, no fewer than six white sharks have been found stranded or beached in the province since 1962, mostly from the western coasts of the Queen Charlotte Islands. The most recent of these was a 5.2-metre-long male beached at Long Inlet, Graham Island, BC, on 16 December 1987. List-user and frequent contributor Ian Fergusson can, no doubt, provide information on white shark strandings from elsewhere, particularly from the Mediterranean and off southern Africa. In recent years, researchers have noticed that each spring a small number of salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis) beach themselves in central and southern California. This phenomenon is poorly understood and is being studied. This species is most common in continental offshore and epipelagic waters, from the surface down to a depth of at least 152 metres, but it has been known to come inshore - sometimes just beyond the breaker zone - which may contribute to this phenomenon. List-user Sean Van Sommeran can perhaps favor us with more information about this intriguing mystery.
Some time ago, a list-user (who's name escapes me at the moment), asked whether shark strandings may be somehow similar to those of whales. At the time, I thought the notion was charmingly naive, but have since had time to reconsider.
Klinowska (1988) compared records of mass cetacean strandings in Britain and the United States against geomagnetic maps (which plot variations in the intensity of magnetic fields at the Earth's surface caused by differences in the underlying rock; these variations are represented as contour lines, so that areas of high magnetism appear as 'hills' and areas of low magnetism as 'valleys'). Klinowska's analysis revealed that most mass strandings and virtually all repeated strandings occurred where the magnetic valleys were oriented perpendicular to the shore. This sensational finding suggests that at least some whales navigate by following a magnetic map of the ocean floor. On land, magnetic variations are very irregular and there are many visual cues to guide navigation. There are no such landmarks in the vast, dark ocean. But there are regular magnetic variations. Magnetic hills and valleys stretch for huge distances across the ocean floor, and toothed whales seem to use the magnetic contour lines as invisible 'roads'. These magnetic freeways often follow continental margins, but not always. Klinowska theorizes that whales may strand when they follow these magnetic roads onto shore. Klinowska has also suggested that the daily pattern of variation in the total geomagnetic field may function as a biological 'travel clock' for whales; solar activity can affect this pattern, possibly causing irregular fluctuations which disturb the clock. Therefore, whale mass strandings may be the magnetic equivalent of traffic accidents.
It is not yet clear how whales sense Earth's magnetic field. Evidence is accumulating from studies carried out in Germany which suggest that cetacean retinas (which contain magnetite) are sensitive to magnetic fields of an..........Read on......http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/b_strandings.htm
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:26 PM | Permalink
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Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:50 PM | Permalink
You never know what your going to fing on this blog - pretty interesting.....http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2001/19/video/a
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:24 AM | Permalink
The study of the magnetism found in the planets and the sun of our solar system has been a very exciting field during the last 100 years.
Of course, trying to understand the magnetism within our own planet earth has been going on for a very long time, and only recently (within the 1990s) has a reasonable model been made which closely mimics how the magnetic field is created and how it changes over time........Read on..http://www.coolmagnetman.com/magspace.htm
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:21 AM | Permalink
These notes have been written to support your learning. They are not a susbtitute for attending the lectures. At the lectures you will see demonstrations, carry out simple experiments, discuss the underlying physical process in greater depth and obtain lecture diagrams not included in these notes, in order to complete your learning experience.
There is a story that a Cretan shepherd by the name of Magnés, whilst tending sheep on the slopes of Mount Ida, found that his iron tipped crook and the nails of his boots were attracted to the ground. To find the source of the attraction he dug up the ground to find stones that we now refer to as lodestones (also spelled loadstone; lode means to lead or to attract) which contain magnetite, a natural magnetic material Fe3O4. The story may be apocryphal but the earliest discovery of the properties of lodestone was either by the Greeks or Chinese. Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD Roman) wrote of a hill near the river Indus that was made entirely of a stone that attracted iron.
The unexplained nature of the magnetic attraction was ripe for exploitation by story tellers and it became difficult to separate fact from fancy.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:12 AM | Permalink
1. North poles point north, south poles point south.
2. Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.
3. Magnetic forces attract only magnetic materials.
4. Magnetic forces act at a distance.
5. While magnetized, temporary magnets act like permanent magnets.
6. A coil of wire with an electric current flowing through it becomes a magnet.
7. Putting iron inside a current-carrying coil increases the strength of the electromagnet.
8. A changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a conductor.
9. A charged particle experiences no magnetic force when moving parallel to a magnetic field, but when it is moving perpendicular to the field it experiences a force perpendicular to both the field and the direction of motion.
10. A current-carrying wire in a perpendicular magnetic field experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to both the wire and the field.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:06 AM | Permalink
After Scheele’s discovery of "Tungsten" in 1781, it took an additional 150 years before his and his successors’ efforts led to the application of tungsten carbide in the industry.
The main use of tungsten (in the form of tungsten carbide) is now in the manufacture of cemented carbide. Cemented carbide, or hardmetal as it is often called, is a material made by "cementing" very hard tungsten monocarbide (WC) grains in a binder matrix of tough cobalt metal by liquid phase sintering.
The combination of WC and metallic cobalt as a binder is a well-adjusted system not only with regard to its properties, but also to its sintering behaviour.
The high solubility of WC in cobalt at high temperatures and a very good wetting of WC by the liquid cobalt binder result in an excellent densification during liquid phase sintering and in a pore-free structure. As a result of this, a material is obtained which combines high strength, toughness and high hardness.
The beginning of tungsten carbide production may be traced to the early 1920’s, when the German electrical bulb company, Osram, looked for alternatives to the expensive diamond drawing dies used in the production of tungsten wire.
These attempts led to the invention of cemented carbide, which was soon produced and marketed by several companies for various applications where its high wear resistance was particularly important. The first tungsten carbide-cobalt grades were soon successfully applied in the cutting and milling of cast iron and, in the early 1930’s, the pioneering cemented carbide companies launched the first steel-milling grades which, in addition to tungsten carbide and cobalt, also contained carbides of titanium and tantalum.
By the addition of titanium carbide and tantalum carbide, the high temperature wear resistance, the hot hardness and the oxidation stability of hardmetals have been considerably improved, and the WC-TiC-(Ta,Nb)C-Co hardmetals are excellent cutting tools for the machining of steel. Compared to high speed steel, the cutting speed increased from 25 to 50 m/min to 250 m/min for turning and milling of steel, which revolutionized productivity in many industries.
Shortly afterwards, the revolution in mining tools began. The first mining tools with cemented carbide tips increased the lifetime of rock drills by a factor of at least ten compared to a steel-based drilling tool.
Read on...... http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1203
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:21 PM | Permalink
Talc is the softest mineral, the standard for hardness grade 1 in the Mohs scale. Your fingernail will easily scratch it. Talc has a greasy feel and a translucent, soapy look. Talc is very useful, and not just because it can be ground into talcum powder—it's a common filler in paints, rubber and plastics too. Other less precise names for talc are steatite or soapstone, but those are rocks containing impure talc rather than the pure mineral.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:13 PM | Permalink
Diamond is the hardest mineral, number 10 in the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. This 4-millimeter specimen shows several faces of diamond's natural crystal form, which is an octahedron—imagine two pyramids joined base to base so their tips point opposite directions. The flat triangles on the diamond correspond to the faces of the octahedron. Crystallographers call them (111) faces, and they are the hardest part of the diamond. Diamond crystals usually have rounded, grooved edges as can be seen next to the flat faces.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:09 PM | Permalink
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness consists of ten different minerals, but some other common objects can also be used: these include the fingernail (hardness 2.5), a steel knife or window glass (5.5), a steel file (6.5), and a penny.
Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:06 PM | Permalink
The Mohs scale was devised by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 and has been a valuable aid to identifying minerals ever since. Here are the ten standard minerals in the Mohs scale....... Read on ......http://geology.about.com/library/bl/blmohsscale.htm
The Mohs scale was devised by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 and has been a valuable aid to identifying minerals ever since. Here are the ten standard minerals in the Mohs scale.......
Read on ......http://geology.about.com/library/bl/blmohsscale.htmRead full story
Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:35 PM | Permalink
Microscopic plant life is at the base of the marine food web and is the primary food and energy source for the ocean ecosystem. Phytoplankton convert nutrients into plant material by using sunlight with the help of the green pigment chlorophyll. The chlorophyll pigments in the plants absorb light, and the plants themselves scatter light. Together, these processes change the color of the ocean as seen by an observer looking downward into the sea. Very productive water with a high concentration of plankton appears blue-green. Very pure water appears deep-blue, almost black. ............................Click Here to Read on
Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:01 AM | Permalink