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April 2007


Juvenile Geomagnetic Map

Introduction

Compasses and Maps

Earth's Magnetic Field

Experimental Methods

Results

 

 

 

 

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:15 AM | Permalink




To a first approximation, the Earth's magnetic field resembles that of an enormous bar magnet. The field lines emerge from the southern half of the earth and re-enter in the northern half.

Several features of the Earth's field vary in a predictable way across the surface of the globe and might, in principle, be used in assessing geographic position. For example, at each location on the Earth, the field lines intersect the Earth's surface at a specific angle of inclination. On the diagram above, note that near the equator, the field lines are approximately parallel to the Earth's surface; the inclination angle in this region is said to be 0°. As one travels north from the equator, however, the field lines become progressively steeper. At the magnetic pole, the field lines are directed almost straight down into the Earth and the inclination is said to be 90°. Thus, inclination angle varies with latitude. As a consequence, an animal that has the ability to distinguish between magnetic inclination angles has a mechanism that it might be able to use to approximate its latitude. As we will discuss, hatchling loggerheads have been shown to have this ability....More. Read on....http://www.unc.edu/depts/oceanweb/turtles/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:10 AM | Permalink

The offshore migration of hatchling Florida loggerheads is just the first step in a much longer transoceanic journey. Young loggerheads evidently remain for several years within the North Atlantic gyre, the circular current system that encircles the Sargasso Sea (see below). During this time many cross to the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast as juveniles.

....Read on........http://www.unc.edu/depts/oceanweb/turtles/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:08 AM | Permalink

     If the magnetic compass functions in the offshore migration of hatchlings, then turtles must inherit or acquire a preference for swimming toward the magnetic direction that coincides with the seaward direction. In initial experiments investigating the magnetic compass, hatchling loggerheads were permitted to swim toward a dim light in the east (their normal migratory direction) before they were tested in darkness. These animals subsequently swam east to northeast in the geomagnetic field. To determine whether the initial course of the turtles influenced their subsequent magnetic orientation, turtles in one experiment were exposed to light from either magnetic east or west before being tested in darkness (Lohmann and Lohmann, 1994). Hatchlings that had been exposed to light in the east subsequently oriented eastward, whereas those that had been exposed to light in the west swam approximately westward. Reversing the magnetic field resulted in......Read on.....http://www.unc.edu/depts/oceanweb/turtles/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:06 AM | Permalink

Hatchlings that have just entered the ocean appear to orient exclusively on the basis of waves; no evidence presently exists for the involvement of other directional cues at this early stage of the offshore migration. Because waves entering shallow water refract until they approach the beach directly, orienting into waves leads turtles seaward.

In deeper water farther from land, waves no longer provide a reliable indicator of offshore direction. Nevertheless, hatchling loggerheads tracked from a Florida beach continued on the same offshore headings even after entering areas where wave direction no longer coincided with their established courses. The ability to maintain headings seemingly independent of wave direction implies that, after they have distanced themselves from land, hatchlings use one or more alternative sources of directional information to guide their movements.

Loggerhead and leatherback hatchlings are known to orient to the Earth's magnetic field, a cue that might potentially provide sea turtles with a way to maintain a heading without relying on waves. The experiments that first demonstrated that sea turtles can detect magnetic fields involved monitoring the directions that turtles swam toward under various magnetic fields in the lab. For these tests, each hatchling was placed into a nylon-Lycra harness as shown below.

Read on.......More....http://www.unc.edu/depts/oceanweb/turtles/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:54 AM | Permalink

Gov't research grants on magnetism, guidance, sea turtles, magnetic highways and you tell us - if you find magnets in stars in space, sharks and birds following magnetic pathways, magnetic particles on mars then how can magnets not play a role in our lives?? Basically we just do not understand the effects of magnets on us - we live on the biggest magnet - at least that we can touch - the Earth.. The more you put all of this info in one place the more you see a much bigger picture of magnets and magnetism and how it really might be a part of everything we touch and see as some have postulated


Award Abstract #0344387
Geomagnetic Guidance Mechanisms in Sea Turtles


NSF Org:IOS
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Initial Amendment Date:February 26, 2004
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Latest Amendment Date: April 13, 2006
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Award Number:0344387
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Award Instrument: Continuing grant
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Program Manager:Michael D. Beecher
IOS Division of Integrative Organismal Systems
BIO Directorate for Biological Sciences
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Start Date: March 1, 2004
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Expires:February 29, 2008 (Estimated)
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Awarded Amount to Date: $413000
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Investigator(s):Kenneth Lohmann KLohmann@email.unc.edu(Principal Investigator)
Catherine Lohmann (Co-Principal Investigator)
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Sponsor: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
104 AIRPORT DR STE 2200
CHAPEL HILL, NC 27599 919/966-3411
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NSF Program(s):IBN ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
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Field Application(s): 0000099 Other Applications NEC
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Program Reference Code(s): OTHR,0000
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Program Element Code(s):1160

ABSTRACT

GEOMAGNETIC GUIDANCE MECHANISMS IN SEA TURTLES

PI: Kenneth J. Lohmann
Co-PI: Catherine M. F. Lohmann

The long-distance migrations of sea turtles involve some of the most extraordinary feats of orientation and navigation in the animal kingdom. Hatchling turtles entering the ocean for the first time immediately establish courses toward the open sea and steadfastly maintain them long after swimming beyond sight of land. As the turtles mature, they often follow complex migratory pathways across vast distances that sometimes span entire ocean basins. Older turtles take up residence in feeding grounds but periodically migrate long distances to particular mating and nesting sites, after which many navigate back to the same feeding sites that they inhabited previously. How sea turtles guide themselves across vast expanses of seemingly featureless ocean has remained an enduring mystery of animal behavior.
Although sea turtles, like other animals, exploit multiple cues in orientation and navigation, growing evidence suggests that the Earth's magnetic field provides turtles with an important source of both directional and positional information that can be used in different ways at different life history stages. As hatchlings, turtles may first use the Earth's field as a directional cue that enables them to maintain headings as they migrate out to sea. Later, in the open ocean, regional magnetic fields apparently function as navigational markers that elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries, thus helping young turtles remain within favorable oceanic regions and progress along the migratory route. Turtles at this life history stage, however, do not navigate to specific geographic locations. In contrast, older juveniles take up residence in coastal feeding grounds, and recent evidence suggests that they acquire a "magnetic map" that enables them to navigate to specific feeding sites. A similar navigational ability may explain how adult turtles locate nesting beaches......More.. More ... More...http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0344387

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:50 AM | Permalink

Discovery
Geomagnetic Landmarks Give Turtles Sense of Where They Are, Where to Go

How sea turtles navigate across vast expanses of featureless ocean to reach feeding and breeding sites has long been a mystery. Now, clues are surfacing to indicate turtles rely partly upon invisible landmarks created by the Earth’s magnetic field.

turtle in a cloth harness

The turtles were placed into cloth harnesses and tethered to limit their travel.

 

July 30, 2004

How turtles navigate across vast expanses of seemingly featureless ocean to reach distant feeding and breeding sites has long been a mystery of the seas. Now, clues are surfacing to indicate sea turtles rely at least partly upon an invisible map of landmarks created by the Earth's magnetic field.

While technological global positioning systems process signals from satellites, the turtles' system draws upon variations in Earth's magnetic field, which give each geographic area a distinctive magnetic pattern. New research shows that sea turtles can apparently detect and distinguish among the magnetic fields in different locations, enabling them to compile a "magnetic map" for navigating to specific feeding and nesting areas.

The findings, reported in the April 29, 2004, issue of Nature, may enhance conservation efforts to protect endangered turtle species and suggest new methods of human navigation, according to the researchers. The study was led by University of North Carolina marine biologists Kenneth and Catherine Lohmann along the Atlantic coast of Florida and was supported by a $413,000 grant from the National Science Foundation.

As newly hatched turtles leave the beach and enter the sea for the first time, they use the earth's magnetic field and the direction of ocean waves as crude compasses to guide them offshore into deeper waters favorable for growth and development. The young turtles, however, use the field primarily as a source of directional information for maintaining a heading.

"Older turtles," Lohmann said, "learn to use magnetic-field information in a far more sophisticated way, as a kind of map that can be used to pinpoint specific are....Read on....http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=100069&org=NSF

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:42 AM | Permalink

A new family of magnetic molecules may point the way to computer memory that can be bent and flexed like plastic. A group has synthesized three carbon-based (organic) nickel compounds that become magnetic spontaneously at room temperature--an extremely rare find. If researchers can figure out how these materials form and how to control that process, they might be able to turn similar compounds into pliable magnetic plastics.

Past examples of magnetic organic materials were either unstable in air or were mostly made of metal, making them unsuitable for linking together into a plastic, says chemist Robin Hicks of the University of Victoria, British Columbia, lead author of the study reporting the find in this week's Nature. "There's been relatively few success stories in actually making a molecule that's magnetic at room temperature," he says......Read on.....http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa003&articleID=321E8B66-E7F2-99DF-3954EAC629ECD324&ref=rss

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:38 AM | Permalink

The rocks on Mars contain the magnetic imprint left by large-scale surface movements millions of years ago, according to a team of US and French researchers.


BBC Science Correspondent Sue Nelson: "Mars has more in common with Earth than ever before"
If confirmed, this would be the first direct evidence of the existence on another world other than Earth of what scientists call plate tectonics.

This describes how the planet's crust is divided into interlocking sections, or plates, that float on top of a partially molten mantle. Heat from the Earth's core drives a convection system within the mantle, causing the plates on the surface to move.

 

Barcode pattern

The plates separate, collide, and squeeze past each other. This explains a wide variety of events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain ranges.

The theory of plate tectonics on Earth was confirmed by the presence on the Atlantic sea floor of a series of magnetic stripes......Read on......http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/331535.stm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:27 AM | Permalink


Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

Magnets are familiar strangers. Most of us have at least one around the house - in our telephone receivers, stereo and TV speakers, or used to turn our refrigerators into bulletin boards and art galleries. The earliest magnets (circa 500 BC) were naturally-occurring lumps of an iron oxide mineral known as 'magnetite' (Fe3O4) and were imputed with all manner of mystical properties. Today, magnets come in all shapes and sizes: from simple bars and 'classic' horseshoes to various business logos and cartoon characters to food, fishes, cows, and even baby-blue pigs with 'Think Thin' written across their bellies - thereby holding up both our best intentions and our kids' baseball schedules. Magnets are everywhere. But few of us understand how they work.

Magnetism and electricity are fundamentally interconnected. Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted showed in 1820 that an electric current flowing in a wire deflects a compass nearby. Whenever an electric current flows - whether from cloud to ground in the form of lightning or through a contracting muscle in the body - a magnetic field is created. The unification of electric and magnetic principles under a comprehensive mathematical theory was first achieved by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. It is now known that magnetism is a property of the atom itself. Ultimately, the magnetic properties of matter are determined by the collective behavior of the negatively charged electrons that orbit the nuclei of atoms. The magnetic dipole moment (or magnetic field) of an individual electron has two components, one resulting from the spin of the electron about its own axis, the other from its orbital motion about the nucleus. Both kinds of motion may be considered as tiny circular currents (moving charges), thus linking electricity and magnetism at an atomic level.

In most atoms and molecules, these electronic magnets are oriented in random directions and the sum total magnetic moment of all the orbital electrons is zero. However, in some highly ordered crystalline materials - such as iron, nickel, and cobalt - the spins of some orbital electrons in adjacent atoms become coupled (I will spare you the quantum physics), creating local magnetic 'domains' in which magnetization is unidirectional. Adjacent domains are magnetized in different directions, so that there is no bulk magnetization. When an external magnetic field is applied, those domains aligned with the field grow at the expense of others, resulting in a very strong type of permanent magnetization known as 'ferromagnetism'. So from where does this 'external field' come? For the answer, we must look to the Earth's core....Read on...http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/s_lodestones.htm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 10:03 PM | Permalink

 

While you may never have pondered the similarity between a common bar magnet and a star, astronomers do, and they believe they have figure out why the two disparate bodies are sometimes strikingly similar.

Magnetic activity on many stars, such as our Sun, varies a lot over days, weeks and years. Magnetic fields pop in and out of existence at different spots and overall intensity changes with time. But other stars have strong, consistent magnetic fields that behave just like the smooth and static field of a bar magnet. Astronomers call them magnetic stars.

In these magnetic stars, as with bar magnets, magnetic field lines emanate from each pole, north and south, and loop outward like the skeletal lines of a perfect pumpkin, connecting one pole to the other.

There are three types of magnetic stars:

  • Magnetic A-stars are otherwise normal and about two to 10 times as hefty as the Sun. One example is Alioth, the third star in on the handle of the Big Dipper.
  • Some white dwarfs, which are burnt-out stellar corpses, have magnetic fields 100,000 times stronger than the typical magnetic A-star.
  • Magnetars are ultra-dense neutron stars that have fields 100 billion times stronger than a commercial bar magnet.

For the past five decades or so, there have been two competing ideas for how magnetic stars pack such strong and consistent power. One says the magnetism is generated by movement deep within the star, similar to how Earth's ever-present magnetic field is created.

The other idea, known as the fossil field hypothesis, holds that the magnetic field of a giant gas cloud is sometimes retained after the cloud collapses to form a star. That fits with the fact that fields of magnetic stars don't change with time. But there's a problem: The magnetic field in a star should decay in a few years, other theories state, so something would have to rejuvenate it. Or, perhaps the theory hasn't been fully fleshed out.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics have made new numeric simulations in which magnetic fields of various initial configurations become stable as a star develops, supporting the fossil field idea.

"The clouds from which stars form contain a very large amount of magnetic field lines, more than even the stars with the strongest fields observed, explained Max Planck researcher Hendrik Spruit. "Most of the magnetic flux decays away in all cases, but in some a bit (or even a lot) remains."

The fields always end up the same, with a ring of twisted field lines. The mess looks something like a car tire in which broken steel from the internal wire mesh sticks through the surface at various angles, Spruit and his colleagues reported in the Oct. 14 issue of the journal Nature. ....Read on....http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/magnetic_stars_041102.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:04 AM | Permalink

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:38 AM | Permalink

Well one thing leads to another and why not look at such lofty thoughts??

E = mc2. It's the world's most famous equation, but what does it really mean? "Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared." On the most basic level, the equation says that energy and mass (matter) are interchangeable; they are different forms of the same thing. Under the right conditions, energy can become mass, and vice versa. We humans don't see them that way—how can a beam of light and a walnut, say, be different forms of the same thing?—but Nature does.

So why would you have to multiply the mass of that walnut by the speed of light to determine how much energy is bound up inside it? The reason is that whenever you convert part of a walnut or any other piece of matter to pure energy, the resulting energy is by definition moving at the speed of light. Pure energy is electromagnetic radiation—whether light or X-rays or whatever—and electromagnetic radiation travels at a constant speed of 300,000 km/sec (186,000 miles/sec).

Why, then, do you have to square the speed of light? It has to do with the nature of energy. When something is moving four times as fast as something else, it doesn't have four times the energy but rather 16 times the energy—in other words, that figure is squared. So the speed of light squared is the conversion factor that decides just how much energy lies within a walnut or any other chunk of matter. And because the speed of light squared is a huge number—90,000,000,000 (km/sec)2—the amount of energy bound up into even the smallest mass is truly mind-boggling.

Here's an example. If you could turn every one of the atoms in a paper clip into pure energy—leaving no mass whatsoever—the paper clip would yield 18 kilotons of TNT. That's roughly the size of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945. On Earth, however, there is no practical way to convert a paper clip or any other object entirely to energy. It would require temperatures and pressures greater than those at the core of our sun. Read on...http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/lrk-hand-emc2expl.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:35 AM | Permalink

Well maybe lookingat a magnetic bracelet, copper bracelet, magnetic jewelry website is going too far referring to Newton and various theory's but then again why not fill the mind while you still can??

 

SUBJECT: Observing Newton's Theory of Gravity

Introduction: According to Newton's theory of gravity, all bodies possess the force of attraction called "gravity." Larger masses, such as the Sun, attract smaller masses, such as the planets and comets, more strongly, causing the smaller masses to move toward the larger masses. In our solar system, the planets orbit the Sun due to the force of the Sun's

 

Materials

 
 
 Flat Magnet (the stronger the better)
Ball bearing (at least 8mm)
Large piece of cardstock (~1ft.x3ft.)
 
 
gravity pulling them into this elliptical path. Comets soaring through the galaxy are curved toward the Sun due to gravity's pull. In this demonstration, we use the force of magnetism to model how the force of gravity reaches out and pulls comets toward the Sun and how planets stay in orbit.

Setup: Place cardstock on table or floor. Place magnet underneath one end of the cardstock. Make sure the magnet does not create a significant bump in the cardstock. If it does, raise the cardstock so there is no bump.

Procedure: Roll a steel ball bearing down the length of the cardstock. Try to roll it near the hidden magnet. Observe what happens to the path of the ball bearing when it comes close enough to the magnet to react to its magnetic field. Can you make the ball bearing turn 45 degrees? 90 degrees? 180 degrees? 360 degrees? Try to roll the ball bearing at the right speed and distance from the magnet so it curls around it and comes back to you. This may take many efforts.

Observations:.........Read on.....http://einstein.stanford.edu/content/education/EducatorsGuide/Page24.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:28 AM | Permalink

An Analysis of the solar system and how the planets line up, as magnets, with the Sun shows a variety of positions. Earth and Mercury, both with magnetic cores and in close proximity to the Sun, align alongside of the Sun attempting to form one large magnet. Bar magnets, free to move, will snap together side by side to form one large magnet, but planets held apart from each other or their Sun by the gravity Repulsion Force cannot actually touch. The large gaseous planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are in a Reversed polarity, as we have explained, as they are simply a conduit for the flow of magnetic particles, not themselves magnets. And Neptune and Pluto align themselves with the magnetic flow lines, from afar, as iron ore shavings will do when laid next to a magnet. All the planets being, however, on the Ecliptic and none approaching the Sun to pass by sliding past its S Pole as Planet X is doing. Thus, where the alignment of Planet X to be in alignment with the Sun holds when Planet X, like the other planets, is alongside the Sun, when sliding past either of the Sun’s pole as it passes the Sun, there is likely to be a tilt. How else does a magnet move from being an end-to-end magnet, to becoming a side-by-side magnet, thence returning to an end-to-end posture? It tilts. Temporarily.

During the late December sweep of the Sweeping Arm of the Sun the effect on Earth was that both planets ....Read on......http://www.zetatalk.com/index/zeta66.htm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:22 AM | Permalink

 

 

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:15 AM | Permalink

Perhaps the greatest theoretical achievement of physics in the 19th century was the discovery of electromagnetic waves. The first hint was an unexpected connection between electric phenomena and the velocity of light.

Electric forces in nature come in two kinds. First, there is the electric attraction or repulsion between (+) and (-) electric charges. It is possible to use this to define a unit of electric charge, as the charge which repels a similar charge at a distance of, say, 1 meter, with a force of unit strength (actual formulas make this precise).

But second, there is also the attraction and repulsion between parallel electric currents. One could then define the unit of current, as the current which, when flowing in a straight wire, attracts a similar current in a parallel wire 1 meter away with a force of unit strength, for every meter of the wires’ length.

But electric current and charge are related! We could have just as well based the unit of current on the unit of charge—say, as the current in which one unit of charge passes each second through any cross section of the wire. This second definition turns out to be quite different, and if meters and seconds are used in all definitions, the ratio of the two units of current turns out to be the speed of light, 300,000,000 meters per second.

In Faraday’s time the speed of light was known, although not as accurately as it is today. It was first derived around 1676 by Ole (Olaus) Roemer, a Danish astronomer working in Paris. Roemer tried to predict eclipses of Jupiter’s moon Io (mentioned later here in an altogether different connection) and he found a difference between actual and predicted eclipse times, which grew and then decreased again as the Earth circled the Sun. He correctly guessed the reason, namely, as the Earth moved in its orbit, its distance to Jupiter also went up and down, and light needed extra time to cover the extra distance...Read on...http://www.sciencemaster.com/jump/physical/magnetic_waves.php

Posted by Jay Roberts at 05:28 AM | Permalink

Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Pathfinder Lander: Preliminary Results

S. F. Hviid, M. B. Madsen, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, W. Goetz, J. M. Knudsen, R. B. Hargraves, P. Smith, D. Britt, A. R. Dinesen, C. T. Mogensen, M. Olsen, C. T. Pedersen, L. Vistisen

Many of the particles currently suspended in the martian atmosphere are magnetic, with an average saturation magnetization of about 4 A·m2/kg (amperes times square meters per kilogram). The particles appear to consist of claylike aggregates stained or cemented with ferric oxide (Fe2O3); at least some of the stain and cement is probably maghemite (gamma -Fe2O3). The presence of the gamma  phase would imply that Fe2+ ions leached from the bedrock, passing through a state as free Fe2+ ions dissolved in liquid water. These particles could be a freeze-dried precipitate from ground water poured out on the surface. An alternative is that the magnetic particles are titanomagnetite occurring in palagonite and inherited directly from a basaltic precursor.

S. F. Hviid, M. B. Madsen, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, W. Goetz, J. M. Knudsen, A. R. Dinesen, C. T. Mogensen, M. Olsen, C. T. Pedersen, L. Vistisen, Oersted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics, and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
R. B. Hargraves, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
P. Smith and D. Britt, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.


Both Viking landers had a weak and a strong magnet mounted on the backhoe of their soil samplers ....More....http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/278/5344/1768

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:02 AM | Permalink

Earth energy. It can't be seen or tasted and it doesn't have an odor. But, the effects of Earth energy can be experienced in all of those ways. It isn't loud, but it can be heard. It can't be touched, but it can definitely be felt.

 

Our ancestors knew that ley lines, earth grids and vortexes were energy sources and centers that were to be considered holy. They knew that Mother Earth supplied their physical needs, cured their ills and balanced their spirit. Mother Earth had also supplied the invisible forces of Earth energy. They respected the strength of these unseen powers and knew they were a place to heal physical, emotional and spiritual pain. Used as a place of communion with the Creator, our ancestors knew that these energy points uplifted the group or individual consciousness and fortified the soul.  Read on.....http://www.shirleymaclaine.com/articles/sites/article-315

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:51 AM | Permalink

In 1950 the Canadian government authorized a short-lived program designed to study UFOs.  Here is the program's report by Wilbert B. Smith, Engineer-in-Charge, Project Magnet.

During the past five years there has been accumulating in the files of the United States Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Department of Transport, and various other agencies, an impressive number of reports on sightings of unidentified flying objects popularly known as "Flying Saucers".  These files contain reports by creditable people on things which they have seen in the sky, tracked on radar, or photographed.  They are reports made in good faith by normal, honest people, and there is little if any reason to doubt their veracity.  Many sightings undoubtedly are due to unusual views of common objects or phenomena, and are quite normal, but there are many sightings which cannot be explained so easily.

Project Magnet was authorized in December, 1950, by Commander C. P. Edwards, then Deputy Minister of Transport for Air Services, for the purpose of making as detailed a study of the saucer phenomena as could be made within the framework of existing establishments.  The Broadcast and Measures Section of Telecommunications Division were given the directive to go ahead with this work with whatever assistance could be obtained informally from outside sources such as Defense Research Board and National Research Council.

It is perfectly natural in the human thinking mechanism to try and fit observations into an established pattern.  It is only when observations stubbornly refuse to be so fitted that we become disturbed.  When this happens we may, and usually do, take one of three courses.  First, we may deny completely the validity of the observations; or second, we may pass the whole subject off as something of no consequence; or third, we may accept the discrepancies as real and go to work on them.  In the matter of Saucer Sightings all three of these reactions have been strikingly apparent.  The first two approaches are obviously negative and from which a definite conclusion can never be reached.  It is the third approach, acceptance of the data and subsequent research that is dealt with in this report.

The basic data with which we have to work consist largely of sightings reported as they are observed throughout Canada in a purely random manner......Read on....http://www.aufosg.com/page218.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:42 AM | Permalink

This project was a study of UFOs carried out by the Department of Transport (DOT) in Canada in the early 1950s. It was set up in December 1950 under the direction of Wilbert B. Smith, then a senior radio engineer, Broadcast and Measurements Section.

The project was quite small; it used facilities of DOT, with assistance from other government departments, including the Defense Research Board (DRB) and the National Research Council (NRC). The project was an outgrowth of work already being done by Smith and a group of colleagues within DOT on the collapse of the Earth’s magnetic field as a source of energy. It was the belief of many that "FLYING SAUCERS" were operating on magnetic principles and it was thought the DOT work might explain their operation. ...Read on....http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1800.htm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:38 AM | Permalink

The Earth Grid, Human Levitation and Gravity Anomolies


Diamagnetic Gravity Vortexes
by Richard Lefors Clark, Ph.D.

Source: Extracted from: "Anti-Gravity and the World Grid".
Edited by David Hatcher-Childress
Adventures Unlimited Press, Stelle, Illinois, 60919

Knowledge of the Earth Grid or "crystalline Earth" is very ancient and has been utilized by a number of civilizations. The pyramids and ley lines are on the power transfer lines of the natural Earth gravity Grid all over the world. The Earth Grid is comprised of the geometrical flow lines of gravity energy in the structure of the Earth itself.

While the subject of the Earth Grid has by now been covered in a considerable number of publications, one point in the Grid, marked by a long and strange history, at the eastern tip of Lake Ontario, is worth special mention. Most interesting here are two individuals, living one hundred years apart, who were both directly affected by this same Earth Grid point. These men were Daniel Home, the 1 9th century psychic, and Wilbert Smith, the 20th century scientist.

Daniel Home is the world famous levitator of the 1 9th century who lived in this Lake Ontario Grid point area...Want more?? Raed on.....http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/project156.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:33 AM | Permalink

NEWS

For at least the last hundred years or so people have been attempting to find ways to utilize magnetic energy to power motors, and the results of those attempts have ranged from the unintelligible to the unreplicable. Well, a former professional musician in Japan has finally accomplished that goal. Kohei Minato has been working on his idea since the 1970s, and his developments have left most other ideas for magnetic engines in the dust.

The underlying premise for his machines is a combination of two electromagnet stators placed......................Read On .......http://www.geek.com/news/geeknews/2004Mar/gee20040405024594.htm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:23 AM | Permalink

Watch this!!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1woSe6UB0c8

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:14 AM | Permalink

 by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2007

MUNICH, GERMANY – Mike Brady and I have a deeply intertwined history that dates back nearly five years. Our relationship has ranged from business associates to distant observers, but has remained mostly friendly throughout. I do believe that he has a viable technology that could potentially provide a clean energy solution for the planet, but I have not yet witnessed it in operation, though I have sought to do so a number of times, and am still in process of seeking the opportunity to go see and validate his claims, either in person or through a representative in the New Energy Congress. I still own the domain name: perendev.com, which forwards to our independent coverage at PESWiki.

I commenced my work in alternative energy in earnest largely as a result of Mike. Shortly after I commenced an index page featuring a smattering of free energy technologies in around April, 2002, Mike sent me an email with a link to his magnetic motor website. We commenced correspondence, and I began arranging to sponsor a tour of his motor throughout the United States, along with assembling a team of people to help manufacture and market the device both in the U.S. and.........Read on........http://pesn.com/Radio/Free_Energy_Now/shows/2007/02/17/9700224_Perendev/

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:12 AM | Permalink

Question:  It would appear that the earth's magnetic poles have 'swapped' many times, with N & S switching positions.  If this should happen in the current era, what would be the effect? Obviously all navigational instrumentation would be affected, but what about the effect of a reversal of the magnetic field on electronic devices and electro-magnetic equipment? Would such a massive change affect national power grids? SBradley, School Dist.  Technology Director steve... Read on......http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy99/phy99357.htm

Posted by Jay Roberts at 11:25 PM | Permalink


       By compiling all the solar wind data gathered in the space age, NASA scientists have concluded that even though the solar magnetic field is constantly changing, it always returns to its original shape and position.

       "We now know that the Sun's magnetic field has a memory and returns to approximately the same configuration in each 11- year solar cycle," said Dr. Marcia Neugebauer, a Distinguished Visiting Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "Current theories imply that the field is generated by random, churning motions within the Sun and should have no long- term memory. Despite this expectation, the underlying magnetic structure remains fixed at the same solar longitude."

       "It's interesting that the solar magnetic field varies in strength and direction, but not in longitude," said Dr. Edward Smith, senior research scientist at JPL.

       The solar wind is composed of charged particles ejected from the Sun that flow continuously through interplanetary space. The solar wind carries part of the Sun's magnetic field into space. Before completing this research, scientists knew that features of the solar wind reaching the Earth tended to repeat about every 27 days, said Neugebauer. The new information pinpoints the repetition interval at 27 days and 43 minutes and shows that the Sun has kept this steady rhythm, much like a metronome, for at least 38 years.

       This pattern escaped previous detection because it is a very subtle statistical effect. There are many larger variations in the solar wind that come and go, which largely mask the underlying pattern. This repetitive behavior can't be seen if these data are examined for only a few months or years, but it was revealed in this 38-year database.........Read on....http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2000/sunmagfield.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:53 AM | Permalink

XMM-Newton image of star AB Aurigae
XMM-Newton image of star AB Aurigae
 
XMM-Newton reveals a magnetic surprise
22 February 2007
ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton has revealed evidence for a magnetic field in space where astronomers never expected to find one. The magnetic field surrounds a young star called AB Aurigae and provides a possible solution to a twenty-year-old puzzle.
 
At 2.7 times the mass of the Sun, AB Aurigae is one of the most massive stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming cloud. Although amongst nearly 400 smaller stars, its ultraviolet radiation plays a key role in shaping the cloud. Its massive status puts it in a class known as Herbig stars, named after their discoverer George Herbig.

As part of a large programme to survey Taurus-Auriga at X-ray wavelengths, XMM-Newton systematically targeted AB Aurigae and the other young stars in this region, using its European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC). AB Aurigae stood out brightly in the image, indicating that it was releasing X-rays. Read on......http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEM01WBE8YE_Life_0.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:50 AM | Permalink

Future spacecraft may surf the magnetic fields of Earth and other planets, taking previously unfeasible routes around the solar system, according to a proposal funded by NASA's Institute for Advanced Concepts. The electrically charged craft would not need rockets or propellant of any kind.

Mason Peck of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, US, has received a grant to study the idea, which is based on the fact that magnetic fields exert forces on electrically charged objects.

He says a satellite could charge itself up in one of two ways – either by firing a beam of charged particles into space, or simply by allowing a radioactive isotope to emit charged particles. The charged satellite would then be gently pushed by Earth's rotating magnetic field, enabling it to change orbit and even escape to interplanetary space.

Early signs suggest the idea may work. In one experiment at Binghamton University in New York, US, Peck's colleague Jim Brownridge connected a small conducting sphere to a piece of radioactive Americium 241 inside a vacuum chamber, successfully charging up the sphere.

But the amount of charge held by a sphere at a given voltage, a quantity known as its capacitance, is not very large. Long, thin filaments, on the other hand, have a lot of charge-holding surface area, so one possible design involves many filaments attached to the spacecraft. The setup would have a rather comical look – because of the static charge, the filaments would stick out in all directions, like newly brushed dry hair.

Radioactive stocking

A cylindrical mesh of fibres – resembling a stocking – could also be attached to the spacecraft. To charge itself up, the stocking could be coated with a radioisotope, and one of the most powerful would be polonium-210, the isotope used to poison former Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko. But it should be safe to use on the stocking, says Peck, "as long as people working on the spacecraft don't lick it".

Radioisotopes provide far more charging power pound-for-pound than a particle beam, which would have to be powered by bulky solar cells. But they present their own technical problems. "We'd like to be able to modulate the charge," says Peck. "But how do you turn off an isotope?" He thinks the solution will involve changing the geometry of the charge-holder to alter its capacitance........Read on.....................http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn11375-spacecraft-may-surf-the-solar-system-on-magnetic-fields-.html

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:40 AM | Permalink

The first-ever magnetic fields in the universe arose within 370,000 years of the big bang, a new analysis suggests. The work relies on standard physics, unlike some previous theories, and may shed light on how the very first stars grew.

Relatively confined magnetic fields like those in the Earth and Sun are generated by the turbulent mixing of conducting fluids in their cores. But large-scale fields tangled within galaxies and clusters of galaxies are harder to explain by fluid mixing alone. That is because most galaxies have rotated only a few dozen times since they formed.

"The galaxies have not made a lot of rotations during their whole existence, so it's not clear how much amplification one can get," says Dam Thanh Son at the University of Washington in Seattle, US, who was not involved in the new study. "One needs some initial, small magnetic field.".....Read on ....http://space.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8544

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:34 AM | Permalink

P. David in 1904 and B. Brunhes detected reversed magnetic fields in lava flows from the Massif Central mountains in France. In 1926, P. L. Mercanton ( Terrestrial Magnetism, vol 31, P.187) observed reversed magnetization in both old lava flows and baked clays, and went on to suggest that such polarity reversals might be used to test the continental drift hypothesis. Also, in 1929, M. Matuyama published a paper describing polarity reversals in Japan, Manchuria and Tyosen dating from the Quaternary era.

Since then, advanced dating techniques have revealed over 60 reversals during the past 20 million years, and the last one was about 250,000 years ago.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:30 AM | Permalink

The Sun has a roughly 11-year sunspot cycle, however, with the ending of each cycle, the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field reverses so that the North magnetic pole becomes the South and vice versa. Every 22 years we end up with the polarity returned to its 'previous' state. There have been many studies of what happens to Earth's weather when these flips occur, but to my knowledge, there has been no conclusive evidence that polarity reversal does much of anything.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:26 AM | Permalink

 

 
Antennae x-ray image G.Fabbiano et al./NASA/SAO/CXC
Neutron stars galore. Each point-like source in this x-ray image of the Antennae Galaxies is a neutron star or black hole devouring a companion star. Space is strongly warped near these compact objects, so any nearby magnetic fields are likely to be distorted as well. The tension in bent field lines may in turn reduce the curvature of space. (Larger image and more info here.)


Magnetic field lines do not like to bend. When you try to press two magnets together the wrong way, you feel this tendency directly--the field lines resist being squashed to the sides. This magnetic "tension" may have surprising effects when space itself warps, according to a paper in the 11 June PRL. The author finds that when spacetime bends in response to matter, the magnetic field lines push back and try to flatten spacetime. This "magnetocurvature" effect would be strongest when spacetime is most strongly curved--near neutron stars and black holes, and in the very early Universe. Magnetocurvature effects might be measurable in gravitational radiation reaching Earth; they also seem to exclude some theories of the Universe's earliest moments.....................................Read on..http://focus.aps.org/story/v7/st27

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:19 AM | Permalink

Possible Origin Of Magnetic Fields In Space Uncovered

Astronomers have suspected that magnetic fields in space play a key role in the makeup of galaxy clusters -- the basic building blocks of the universe.

Now, an Ohio University-led research team has uncovered what may be the origin of those fields, a finding that has eluded scientists for more than a decade.

The scientists analyzed data collected from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and discovered a series of enormous cosmic “bubbles,” formed more than 100 million years ago, that may contain and transport magnetic fields. These bubbles also may play a role in the creation of new stars in today’s galaxies, and may have been critical in the early stages of the universe.

“We think magnetism, in some locations of the universe, could have been as important as gravity in shaping the overall structure,” said Brian McNamara, an Ohio University astronomer who presented the findings Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.

Using the Chandra observatory, an orbiting spacecraft that houses the most powerful X-ray telescope in existence, McNamara and his collaborators have been examining the forces at work in several galaxy clusters. Galaxy clusters are made of individual galaxies, hot gases and dark matter.

The researchers initially discovered that the X-ray emissions from several galaxy clusters were full of holes, or cavities, that contained bright radio emissions. These cavities probably were created by an explosion of high-energy particles, which left the radio emissions in its wake.

However, the Chandra data on another galaxy cluster known as Abell 2597, located more than 1 billion light years away from Earth, showed a surprising difference. The cluster’s cavities -­ which the researchers dubbed “ghost cavities” ­- contained only faint radio emissions. They seemed to float out of the centers of galaxy clusters like bubbles in a glass of soda pop, McNamara said. But these bubbles are 60,000 light years across in size, almost as big as the Milky Way galaxy.

The data suggest that the ghost cavities are filled with magnetic fields, which are released into the cosmos when the cavities burst apart. This could explain the strong magnetic forces that make up the structure of galaxy clusters, according to the astronomers.

“We’ve known for the past 15 to 20 years that magnetic fields exist, but we didn’t understand how they got there,” said McNamara, an associate professor of physics and astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences whose research is funded by NASA. “This could be a viable mechanism.”

The ghost cavities also may play an indirect role in star formation, according to the scientists. As the cavities move out of the center of the galaxy cluster, the surrounding gases cool and matter becomes dense, falling into a supermassive black hole in the cluster center. That triggers an explosion of radio emission, which sprays matter through the galaxy cluster. Under certain conditions, the matter may form new stars.

This process may happen from a dozen to hundreds of times during the life of the galaxy cluster, McNamara said, and most likely occurs in other galaxy clusters.

The key role of magnetic forces in galaxy clusters suggests that they also may have been an important mechanism in creating cosmic structure in the distant past, when the universe was smaller and the radio emission was more powerful, McNamara added.

Next the scientists will conduct a more detailed analysis of the properties of ghost cavities and their role in galaxy clusters.

“We have a sketch of what’s going on, but the details are foggy at this point,” McNamara said.

Collaborators on the project are Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Paul Nulsen of the University of Wollongong in Australia, Larry David of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Chris Carilli of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Craig Sarazin of the University of Virginia, and a group of astronomers from the Space Telescope Science Institute and the University of Virginia. - By Andrea Gibson

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:12 AM | Permalink