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Experiments


 Microscope

 

According to a recent press release from ScienceDaily.com, magnetotactic bacteria, the smallest organisms to use a biological compass, are currently undergoing extensive research as scientists look to uncover exactly how they create their cellular magnets. In a study published online in Genome Research, researchers have used genome sequencing to unlock new secrets about these magnetic microbes that could accelerate many research studies in both biotechnology and nanotechnology.

So what makes magnetotactic bacteria different from other forms? The answer is in the air. Magnetotactic bacteria, in order to obtain more ample oxygen, evolved using the Earth's magnetic field to orient itself and swim downward – exactly the direction a microbe must move to locate low oxygen areas in lakes and oceans. Using tiny magnetic crystals as a compass, the bacteria was able to find more oxygen and consequently, sustain life. This development, should it be further researched, could shed light on many more aspects of internal compassing, as well as the development of magnetic forces within various life forms.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 01:59 PM | Permalink

According to a recent article in New Scientist, tuberculosis can now be diagnosed in just under 30 minutes, thanks to a new technology that uses magnetic nanoparticles to identify the disease in sputum, even at very low concentrations.

Traditionally, TB is tested by examining bacteria in sputum under a microscope, then sending out samples to a lab for conformation. This involves growing larger colonies of bacteria, which can take weeks, and consequently, delays treatment for many. Not to mention, the extended waiting period can also risk the spread of the disease.

Instead, with this new test, doctors can simply add the sputum to a solution containing nanoparticles with an iron core encased in iron oxide. Each nanoparticle is loaded with antibodies that encourage any TB-causing bacteria in the sputum to bind to it. The new test, which was developed by Ralph Weissleder of Harvard Medical School, offers an alternative to time consuming examinations and testing for physicians in geographic areas that could potentially face a bevy of cases.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:24 PM | Permalink

According to new findings presented at the Oxford TED Global Conference, electricity can be possible without wires. Eric Giler of Witricity made his case with a presentation of a device that offers wireless electricity by making use of magnetic fields – rather than electrical fields – and wave frequency resonance to convey power via the open air.

As BBC News explained in its report, the technique just uses simple physics to charge a number of electronic devices across a specific distance. In the presentation Giler gave, he used batteries from the Google G1 and Apple iPhone to demonstrate. The iPhone proved to be the least responsive of the two, however the G1 was able to achieve a charge. This experiment alone could be huge for the future of energy as people look to save on their energy bills.

This technology, should it develop, could potentially save on the use of expensive cables and billions of single-use batteries. In addition, since this technology uses only magnets, it can theoretically eliminate any safety concerns associated with airborne electricity.


Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:39 PM | Permalink

According to the latest research, hybrid cars may be ale to approve the way that they run by using magnets. The study, which was conducted by researchers at the St. Polten University of Applied Sciences in Australia, looks into the best composition for vehicle magnets and how this new technology could impact overall efficiency. So far, the research shows that scientists can now use high performance magnets to conserve raw materials in hybrid cars.

Professor Thomas Schrefl, the lead author on the project, says that the findings of this study could indicate a raw material change in all new hybrid or electric cars. The materials in question, neodymium and dysprosium, offer high performance properties of magnets and could eventually improve the quality of all hybrid cars by simplifying problems that could emerge just after a few years of owning a car.

The project itself is a collaboration between the researchers at St. Polten University and the University of Sheffiled. Of course, more work still needs to be done on how magnets can be used to truly improve the way that these new cars run, but researchers say that so far, there is an improvement when higher quality magnets are used.



Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:08 PM | Permalink

 Magnetic Field Car

 

When it comes to alternative energies, so many forget the power of magnets. However, for Harsha Vardhan, magnets prove to be the secret behind the newest design for transportation: the Transporter TW. This electric vehicle is propelled by magnetic fields, but what benefits can driver expect? Apparently, according to Vardhan, the resulting ride would be whisper-quiet, incredibly smooth, and of course completely green.


In the picture above, notice the two large wheels. These are filled with a superconducting fluid, generating a constantly-shifting magnetic field that works to turn the wheels. These wheels then rotate around a small back-entry cockpit, complete with a swivel chair and a steering mechanism that looks incredibly futuristic.


Though this concept car doesn't seem to be in the works just yet, it is exciting to see alternative energies taking the forefront in the development of new technologies that can make getting around, faster, cleaner, and more efficient. After all – what's cooler than riding around on magnets?


Posted by Jay Roberts at 08:51 PM | Permalink

Over 30 million people are estimated to live with migraine pain and out of that number, about 40 to 50 percent do not respond to conventional medical treatment. However, there's a new future of treatment in sight: transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has gained a lot of attention recently in its treatment of various psychological and personality disorders, specifically depression. But according to recent studies from Ohio State University Medical Center and the University of California, using transcranial magnetic stimulation to aid in the treatment of migraines, specifically those with aura, has proved to be successful.

In the Ohio State study, 164 patients were treated using magnetics. Nearly 40% of that group reported having no pain two hours after treatment, compared to the 22% in the placebo group. These findings were presented at the annual American Headache Society meeting in Boston in June 2008.

In addition, researchers conducted an animal study at the University of California. One of the main findings of the experiment that magnetic pulses have a biological basis for working for people with migraines. The research was reported to the American Academy of Neurology and more studies could follow as neurologists look for new approaches to treatment.


Posted by Jay Roberts at 06:25 PM | Permalink

Doctors in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania are experimenting with a new procedure that just might spare us a lifetime of heartburn problems.

Dr. James Luketich, a surgeon at the UPMC in Pittsburgh, recently admitted a 24 year-old acid reflux patient into a clinical trial that utilizes a sort of magnetic bracelet for treatment.

In a typical acid reflux case, the valve that is supposed to close after meals will malfunction and therefore remain open, allowing acid to leak. This can cause an uncomfortable feeling in the chest that we know as heartburn.

The key component in the aforementioned procedure is a device called the LINX Reflux Management System, which is surgically inserted into the patient. Once inside, the LINX's magnets create a tension that prevents acid reflux.

Casey Donahoe, the patient who participated in Luketich's trial, has reported positive results, but according to Luketich, it's too early to say whether this is the definite answer to these problems. However, he does agree that the early results warrant further trials.


Source: WPXI.com

Posted by Jay Roberts at 02:39 PM | Permalink

According to a recent press release, Charles K. Herman, M.D., F.A.C.S., Medical Director of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Pocono Health System recently co-authored one of the first comprehensive review articles that describes the use of magnetic fields in healing.  The article was published in this month’s Aesthetic Surgery Journal, the official journal of the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons. 

The article is titled “Evidence-Based Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Clinical Plastic Surgery.”  Dr. Berish Strauch, Emeritus Chair of Plastic Surgery at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Dr. Arthur Pilla from Columbia University, Nobel Laureate Dr. Louis Ignarro, and Dr. Richard Dabb of John Hopkins University joined Dr. Herman in authoring this article.  Dr. Herman is one of the first physicians to implement the technology available for electromagnetic field therapy and began using it at Pocono Medical Center three years ago to assist in healing difficult chronic wounds.

To author the article, Dr. Herman and the contributing physicians assessed the major scientific breakthroughs and current understanding of PEMF therapy.  Through their research, they found that PEMF therapy has been used successfully in the management of postsurgical pain and edema and in the treatment of various chronic wounds. 

Posted by Jay Roberts at 02:37 PM | Permalink

Gov't research grants on magnetism, guidance, sea turtles, magnetic highways and you tell us - if you find magnets in stars in space, sharks and birds following magnetic pathways, magnetic particles on mars then how can magnets not play a role in our lives?? Basically we just do not understand the effects of magnets on us - we live on the biggest magnet - at least that we can touch - the Earth.. The more you put all of this info in one place the more you see a much bigger picture of magnets and magnetism and how it really might be a part of everything we touch and see as some have postulated


Award Abstract #0344387
Geomagnetic Guidance Mechanisms in Sea Turtles


NSF Org:IOS
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Initial Amendment Date:February 26, 2004
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Latest Amendment Date: April 13, 2006
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Award Number:0344387
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Award Instrument: Continuing grant
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Program Manager:Michael D. Beecher
IOS Division of Integrative Organismal Systems
BIO Directorate for Biological Sciences
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Start Date: March 1, 2004
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Expires:February 29, 2008 (Estimated)
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Awarded Amount to Date: $413000
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Investigator(s):Kenneth Lohmann KLohmann@email.unc.edu(Principal Investigator)
Catherine Lohmann (Co-Principal Investigator)
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Sponsor: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
104 AIRPORT DR STE 2200
CHAPEL HILL, NC 27599 919/966-3411
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NSF Program(s):IBN ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
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Field Application(s): 0000099 Other Applications NEC
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Program Reference Code(s): OTHR,0000
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Program Element Code(s):1160

ABSTRACT

GEOMAGNETIC GUIDANCE MECHANISMS IN SEA TURTLES

PI: Kenneth J. Lohmann
Co-PI: Catherine M. F. Lohmann

The long-distance migrations of sea turtles involve some of the most extraordinary feats of orientation and navigation in the animal kingdom. Hatchling turtles entering the ocean for the first time immediately establish courses toward the open sea and steadfastly maintain them long after swimming beyond sight of land. As the turtles mature, they often follow complex migratory pathways across vast distances that sometimes span entire ocean basins. Older turtles take up residence in feeding grounds but periodically migrate long distances to particular mating and nesting sites, after which many navigate back to the same feeding sites that they inhabited previously. How sea turtles guide themselves across vast expanses of seemingly featureless ocean has remained an enduring mystery of animal behavior.
Although sea turtles, like other animals, exploit multiple cues in orientation and navigation, growing evidence suggests that the Earth's magnetic field provides turtles with an important source of both directional and positional information that can be used in different ways at different life history stages. As hatchlings, turtles may first use the Earth's field as a directional cue that enables them to maintain headings as they migrate out to sea. Later, in the open ocean, regional magnetic fields apparently function as navigational markers that elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries, thus helping young turtles remain within favorable oceanic regions and progress along the migratory route. Turtles at this life history stage, however, do not navigate to specific geographic locations. In contrast, older juveniles take up residence in coastal feeding grounds, and recent evidence suggests that they acquire a "magnetic map" that enables them to navigate to specific feeding sites. A similar navigational ability may explain how adult turtles locate nesting beaches......More.. More ... More...http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0344387

Posted by Jay Roberts at 03:50 AM | Permalink

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

Background

Light bulbs are in parallel if they are side-by-side. They still share the electrical energy but they affect each other differently than if they were in series.

Materials Needed

2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
2 light bulbs
4 wires with washers
push pins

Procedure

1. Connect up the simple circuit with 2 batteries.

2. Now replace the single light bulb by two in parallel as shown.

 

3. Remove one bulb from its socket. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4. How does the operation of this parallel circuit compare to the series circuit you worked with earlier?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:31 AM | Permalink

Background

Here's an example of how electricity and magnetism are closely related.

Materials Needed

1 three foot long wire
1 nail
2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
paper clips
push pins

Procedure

1. Wrap the wire tightly around the whole length of the nail. Wrap all of the wire but about 6 inches at each end.

2. Try to pick up the paper clips by touching them with the nail. What happens?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Hook up the batteries so that electricity is running through the wire.

 

4. Try again to pick up the paper clips. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

5. Now disconnect the battery and try the paper clips again. Does the same thing happen as in step 2? What has happened to the nail?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:30 AM | Permalink

SIGNALING

Background

Signaling is a way to communicate where speaking won't work. Smoke signals, football signals and telemetry signals to spaceships are some examples. Signaling is also used to move information around inside of circuits.

Materials Needed

1 battery in holder
1 breadboard
1 light bulb
2 three foot wires
push pins
 1 toothpick
1 rubber band
2 1-foot wires with washer at one end
1 book

Build A Switch

First you have to make a "momentary" switch. Here's how:

1. Take a wire that has no washer on one end and tightly wrap the bare wire around the end of one craft stick. The wires should be touching each other. Use the other wire for the other craft stick.

 

2. Put the 2 sticks on top of each other with the wires touching. Wrap a rubber band tightly around the other end.

3. Put the toothpick between the craft sticks near the rubber band. The wires should now touch when you push down on the switch and open up when you stop pushing.

4. Now that you have your switch, go on to the next page to finish this experiment. You will need to work with another team.

Procedure

1. Build the simple switched circuit using long wires so that your light can be placed a long way from the battery on the other team's breadboard. Keep your switch close to your battery.

 

2. Put a book upright between the two breadboards so that you cannot see the light and switch the other team.

3. Write a one word question and translate it into Morse Code.

4. Use Morse Code to ask the other team your question. Turn your light on for a "long" time for a dash and a "short" time for a dot. Use an extra-long flash of light to indicate that you are done.

5. Now decode their answer. Write down the dots and dashes. Then translate them into letters

 

 

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:29 AM | Permalink

MAGNETIC FIELDS

Background

A magnetic field is the area around a magnet where its magnetic force can be felt.

Materials Needed

1 bar magnet
1 compass

Procedure

1. Place the magnet in the center of the next page.

2. Put the compass near one end of the magnet. Let the needle stop moving. Note the direction of the needle. Lift the compass and draw an arrow where the compass was. The arrow should point in the same direction as the painted end of the compass needle.

 

3. Move the compass toward the middle of the magnet. When the needle settles, note its direction and draw an arrow as before.

4. Repeat this as you move the compass to the other end of the magnet.

5. Now start again from a different place near the end of the magnet. Go from end to end at least 3 times. Explore both above and below the magnet.

6. When you're done, your arrows show you where the magnetic field is.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:26 AM | Permalink

Background

Switches provide an easy way to open and close an electrical circuit.

Materials Needed

2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
1 paper clip
2 light bulbs
2 wires with washers
push pins

Procedure

1. Assemble the simple circuit with 2 batteries. Open and close the wires to turn the bulb off and on.

2. Now wire in the paper clip as a switch as shown and use it to turn the light on and off.

Question

Why does the light go out when you move the switch?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:24 AM | Permalink

Background

Let's see if there are magnetic insulators that are analogous to electrical insulators.

Materials Needed

1 round magnet
1 compass
notebook paper
brown paper
foil
cotton cloth
felt
plastic bag

Procedure

1. Earlier we tound that there are materials that act as electrical insulators that interrupt the flow of electricity. What did we use to determine whether the electrical current was interrupted?

2. Based on your first exploration of magnets, what are two ways we can determine if a magnetic force is present?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Which of these methods do you think will be more likely to detect a weak magnetic force and why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4. For each of the materials, put one layer of the material between the magnet and the detector. Test tor the presence of a magnetic force in two ways. Record your observations in the following chart.

 

5. Repeat step 4 but put 4 layers of each material between the magnet and detector. Record your observations in the chart.

6. Repeat step 4 but put 16 layers of each material between the magnet and detector. Record your observations in the chart.

Conclusion

What can you conclude about magnetic insulators?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:23 AM | Permalink

Background

Light bulbs are said to be in series when they are in the same loop or circuit. All of the light bulbs share the available electrical energy equally.

Materials Needed

1 breadboard
2 batteries in holders
2 wires with washers
3 light bulbs
push pins

Procedure

1. Connect up the simple circuit with 2 batteries. Light the lamp.

 

2. Now replace the single light bulb by three in a row. Another way to say this is that the 3 lights are in series. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Remove one bulb from its socket. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Question

What do you think would happen if you connected 5 bulbs in series?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:23 AM | Permalink

Background

For electricity we found that there were positive and negative charges, that like charges repel each other and opposites attract. Let's see if there's an analogy for magnetism.

Materials Needed

1 compass
2 bar magnets
assorted magnets
2 round pens or pencils

Procedure

1. The bar magnets are marked with North and South poles. Put the pens under one of the bar magnets for rollers. Use the other bar magnet to determine if like poles attract or repel. Record your findings.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2. Move all of the magnets away from one bar magnet. Put the compass at the end of the magnet marked "N". Draw an arrow on the diagram below showing what direction the painted end of the compass needle points. Then repeat for the end marked "S".

 

3. Use the compass in the same way to determine the location of the North and South poles for each of the other magnets. Draw a sketch of each one and show the poles.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:22 AM | Permalink

Background

Electricity is measured in units of volts, amps or watts. The higher the voltage, the more dangerous the electricity is.

Materials Needed

1 breadboard
2 batteries in holders
2 light bulbs
2 wires with washers
push pins

Procedure

1. Build the simple circuit with a single battery. Light the lamp.

2. Now replace the single battery by 2 batteries with both + signs in the same direction. What happens?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Now reverse one of the batteries so that the two + signs are together. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4. What do you think would happen if you used 4 batteries to light one lamp?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Try it with your neighbor.

Questions

Each D-Cell is 1.5 volts. How many volts do two D-Cells have?_______

What voltage is used in your house and school? _______

THE VOLTAGE IN YOUR HOUSE AND SCHOOL IS A LOT HIGHER THAN WE USE IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. NEVER TRY THESE THINGS USING ELECTRICITY FROM A WALL OUTLET!!

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:20 AM | Permalink

Materials Needed

2 bar magnets
1 compass

Procedure

Investigate your magnet. Try different things and write down five observations that you make.

1.______________________________________________________________________

2.______________________________________________________________________

3.______________________________________________________________________

4.______________________________________________________________________

5.______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:19 AM | Permalink

CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS

Background

One thing that makes electricity useful is that not all materials conduct electricity. Materials that do not conduct electricity are called insulators.

Materials Needed

1 battery in holder
1 breadboard
1 light bulb
2 wires with washers
 bag-o-stuff
wires with clips
push pins

Procedure

1. Build the simple circuit shown in the schematic below. If you do it correctly, the bulb will light.

2. Replace one of the wires with the 2 wires with clips as shown below.

 

3. Complete the circuit by clipping each of the materials in the bag-o-stuff between the clips.

4. Figure out which materials are conductors and which are insulators. List the materials in the following chart and check the appropriate column. How will you be able to tell which are conductors and which are insulators?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

 

Question

How would you summarize what sort of materials are insulators and which are conductors?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:18 AM | Permalink

A SIMPLE COMPUTER

Background

Computers are made up of 1000's of simple circuits like this one.

Materials Needed

2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
2 light bulbs
 2 paper clips
6 wires with washers
4 labels
 push pins
2 washers

Procedure

1. Look at the schematic below and try to predict how many lights will be lit when the switches are in different positions. Use the table below to record your predictions.

2. Build the switched, parallel circuit shown in the diagram. Label the switches as shown.

 

3. Use your circuit to complete the following table:

 

 Number Of Bulbs Lit
First SwitchSecond SwitchPredictedObserved
00  
01  
10  
11  

4. What type of calculation is your circuit performing?

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:16 AM | Permalink

SIMPLE CIRCUIT

Background

Unlike static electricity that can exist on a single object, electrical current flows between objects.

Materials Needed

1 bread board 2 wires with washers 1 piece of string 1 battery in holder 1 light bulb push pins

Procedure

1. Figure out how to make the light bulb light.

2. Once you figure it out, draw a "schematic" of your circuit on the next page. This sort of picture is used to describe how to build a particular circuit. It uses symbols to represent things like the battery and light bulb. It shows what each wire connects together. Here are some of the symbols you can use for your schematic:

3. Once you have drawn your schematic, see how many different ways you can get the bulb to light. Draw a schematic for each one. What things are necessary in your circuit for the bulb to light?

4. Build the circuit shown here and make sure the bulb lights. Take out one of the wires. What happens? Why?

5. Build the circuit shown here and make sure the bulb lights. Replace the wire by the string. What happens?

Question

The string is an insulator and the wire a conductor. How might you define these terms?

An insulator is

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

A conductor is

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:15 AM | Permalink

LIGHTNING ROD

Background

It too much electrical energy flows through objects they can overheat and cause fires. Since electrical current prefers the path of least resistance, we can easily protect our homes from the energy in lightning.

Materials Needed

2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
2 light bulbs
 3 wires with washers
1 paper clip
push pins
 paper
pencil
tape

Procedure

1. Cut a lightning bolt out of paper.

2. Build the simple circuit with 2 light bulbs in series. Tape one bulb on the paper lightning bolt. When this light is lit it will indicate that lightning is striking.

 

3. Make a house out of paper. Houses tend to be made of wood, bricks, etc. Are these things good conductors?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4. Put the other light bulb on the house. When this light is lit it will indicate that the house has been damaged by lightning.

5. Simulate lightning striking the house by briefly closing the switch.

6. Now protect the house by building a circuit parallel to the light. This circuit must have resistance that is lower than the house so use just a plain wire.

 

7. Make lightning strike again by closing the switch. What happens? Why?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:14 AM | Permalink

BUILD A BATTERY HOLDER

Background

Our first step will be to build battery holders that will allow us to connect up the batteries easily. Each team should make two holders.

Materials Needed For 1 Holder

1 D Cell battery
1 Toilet paper tube
2 nails
Tape
 2 Thick rubber bands
2 Pieces of foil
2 1-foot long wires with washers
Long strips of newspaper

Procedure

1. Wrap a stack of newpaper strips around the battery until it fits snugly in the paper tube. You may need some tape to hold the paper in place. BE CERTAIN THAT THE PAPER DOES NOT GO PAST THE ENDS OF THE BATTERY.

2. Put the wrapped battery into the center of the tube.

3. Mark the tube clearly with + and -signs to match those on the battery.

 

4. Gently crumple a piece of foil and put it in the tube on top of the battery.

5. CAREFULLY push a nail through the tube as close as possible to the foil. Use a pencil point if necessary to make holes.

6. Turn the tube upside down and repeat steps 4 and 5. Both nails should stick out of the sides of the tube in the same direction.

7. Put a rubber band over the 2 nails on each side. These rubber bands should be tight enough to pull the nails toward each other.

 

8. Attach one wire to each nail by wrapping the bare wire end tightly around the nail.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:13 AM | Permalink

RESISTANCE

Background

Resistors pass some electrical energy but convert some ot it to heat. They are neither conductors nor insulators but somewhere in between.

Materials Needed

2 batteries in holders
1 breadboard
4 wires with washers
 2 light bulbs
push pins
 2 10-Ohm resistors
1 100-Ohm resistor

Procedure

1. Build a simple parallel circuit. Both light bulbs should be lit equally.

2. Break the circuit to one of the lights and reconnect it with a resistor in the path. The resistance of an object is measured in Ohms. The higher the resistance, the more Ohms the object has. Resistors typically have the number ot Ohms marked on them. Start by using the 10 Ohm resistor.

 

3. With the resistor in the circuit, observe and record what changes have occurred in the two lights.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4. Replace the resistor by the 100 Ohm resistbr. What happens?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

5. What do you think would happen if you put a 10 Ohm resistor in BOTH paths?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Try it. What happens?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Question

You have now learned about 3 types of electrical materials. What are they?

1. _________________________

2. _________________________

3. _________________________

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:12 AM | Permalink

STATIC ELECTRICITY

Background

Invisible electrical charge can build up on objects that rub together. Sometimes this happens to clouds. The discharge can go unnoticed or be spectacular like lightning.

Materials Needed

2 plastic stick pens
1 ruler
1 piece of wool
12" of string tape

Procedure

1. Pull two desks apart and put the ruler between them. Tie the string around the middle of one pen and tape it in place. Use the string to hang this pen from the middle of the ruler. The pen should not be touching either desk.

 

2. For the rest of this experiment if you are asked to charge a pen, hold it by its cap and rub it briskly 50 times with the piece of wool. If you are asked to discharge a pen, roll it gently between your hands a few times.

3. Discharge both pens. Hold the loose pen by the cap and slowly bring it near the other pen. Observe what happens and record this in the chart on the next page.

4. Now charge the loose pen. Hold it by the cap and slowly bring it near the other pen. Observe what happens and record this in the chart below.

 

5. Discharge the loose pen. Now record what happens when you bring it near the other pen?

6. Charge both pens. Record what happens when you bring them near each other.

7. Discharge the loose pen but leave the hanging pen charged. Record what happens when you bring them near each other.

Conclusion

If two objects are charged the same, they _____________________ each other. If they are charged differently, they _____________________ each other.

Posted by Jay Roberts at 04:11 AM | Permalink